Individual effects of enzymes and vital wheat gluten on whole wheat dough and bread properties

Abstract: The objective of this research was to determine effects of five enzymes on whole wheat bread properties, particularly loaf volume, bread texture, and staling. Enzymes containing conventional α‐amylase (α‐amyl), cellulase (cel), glucose oxidase, maltogenic α‐amylase (m amyl), and xylanase (xyl) were added at three levels. Vital wheat gluten (VWG) was added as an additional, separate treatment at 2.5% (flour weight basis). Enzymes had minimal effect on water absorption and mixing time. Each enzyme increased specific loaf volume for at least one of the usage levels tested (P < 0.01). Among the enzyme treatments, the greatest loaf volume was seen for xyl at the medium and high levels. No enzyme was as effective as VWG at increasing loaf volume. Overall, enzymes did not significantly change cell structure. The greatest reduction in fresh bread hardness was obtained for the high level of xyl. VWG, m amyl, and xyl reduced the rate of bread firming over 7 days. α‐Amyl, cel, and m amyl decreased starch retrogradation at day 7 as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (P < 0.01). M amyl nearly eliminated the endothermic peak for recrystallized amylopectin. This study demonstrated the specific application of enzymes in whole wheat bread to increase loaf volume and decrease initial crumb hardness and bread staling.

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